A real-life fact pattern with a client was that Grandma and Grandpa wanted to provide something in their wills to provide for their two grandsons who are disabled. They decided they were going to leave them the farm. The thought was not that their grandsons would live on and run the farm, but that it would be sold after their deaths and the proceeds would go to their grandsons who were both disabled. Grandma and Grandpa had very good intentions, particularly since just the land alone had a fair market value of close to $10,000 an acre. Great, right? No.
This blog post is for families that include a loved one with a disability. It is for parents, certainly, but also for extended family who choose to provide a bequest (personal property) or devise (real property, such as house and land) for a disabled family member. The good intentions of family members in leaving money or property to a person with a disability might do more harm than good.
First, it is almost never recommended to leave an inheritance to a person with a disability unless there is a special needs trust for that person in place (I include Ohio’s “wholly discretionary trust” when I use the term “special needs trust”). People with disabilities often receive benefits such as Medicaid, or Social Security Income, that could be jeopardized.
Second, the need for such a trust to be in place is the subject of this blog post—the critical mistake I’ve encountered with clients is that they have a special needs trust plan, but it has a certain type of special needs trust that only takes effect at death, called a testamentary trust. There are trusts that are in existence now and are not funded until death, but that is not a testamentary trust. To the contrary, with a testamentary trust, the trust itself actually comes into existence at death. (Most of the situations that I have seen involve testamentary “supplemental services” trusts.) If testamentary special needs trusts are valid and enforceable, what is the problem? The problem is the real-life scenario in the top paragraph.
The last of the Grandma-Grandpa unit dies and leaves the 10-acre farmhouse and farm to disabled grandsons “Johnny and Joey.” However, Johnny and Joey’s parents are still alive, and have a testamentary supplemental services trust (special needs trust), where the special needs trust does not come into existence until Johnny and Joey’s parents die. In this scenario, there is no special needs trust in existence now, when it is needed.
Except in rare circumstances, I prepare stand-alone special needs trusts that are in existence immediately after they are executed (signed and witnessed). If the boys’ parents or grandparents had a trust prepared that was already in existence, Grandma and Grandpa’s inheritance could have been left to the boys’ trusts, as well as inheritances from others. Because parents might not be the only people who choose to leave an inheritance for a person with a disability, their testamentary special needs trust is not the recommended choice in special needs planning.
If you have questions or would like to begin estate planning with a disabled loved-one in mind, email me at firstname.lastname@example.org.